• General Eisenhower’s Order of the Day

    Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) was the Supreme Allied Commander of the Invasion of Normandy and Assault on German forces in Europe during World War II; he would later be President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. On June 5, 1944 nearly 3 million troops, 4,000 ships, and 1,200 planes belonging to America and the other Allied forces waited in England for the order to invade the French Coast of Normandy to begin an assault on the Germans who had taken over much of Europe. Eisenhower’s Order of the Day was delivered to the 175,000-member expeditionary forces meant to invade Normandy directly on June 5, 1944, the eve of the invasion. As you read, note the language that the author uses to describe Allied forces and their opponents.

    Comments (-1)
  • First They Came…

    Martin Niemöller (1892-1984) was a German anti-Nazi and Lutheran pastor who is most famous for his words below. Niemöller was originally a supporter of Hitler, but he eventually opposed the Nazis. From 1937-1945, Niemöller was imprisoned in two concentration camps. He narrowly escaped execution, but was plagued by regret once he got out. The following statement was made by Niemöller in 1946 and was published in 1950. As you read, take notes on the author's perspective on justice and indifference, and the structure he uses to make his point effectively.

    Comments (-1)
  • From Lithuania to the Chicago Stockyards

    Antanas Kaztauskis dictated this story of his immigration from Lithuania to the Americas to Ernest Poole, a reporter for the Independent. In order to pursue a better life and escape the possibility of conscription1 into the Russian army, Kaztauskis left his homeland to work in the Chicago Stockyards. In stark contrast to the humbler origins from whence he came, the Chicago Stockyards embodied ideals of hard work, competition and sacrifice against the backdrop of intense labor conflict. As you read, think about how America has changed over the past hundred years in regards to labor and immigration. Is it still the place of opportunity it once was?

    Comments (-1)
  • On Reverence for Parents

    The Chinese Book Of Etiquette And Conduct For Women And Girls  c. 49 - c. 120 Zhao Ban (45-116 CE) was the first known female Chinese historian. She wrote extensively about the ideal way in which girls and women should conduct themselves. Her works on this subject were extremely influential in China. The concept of filial piety, or respect for one’s parents and ancestors, is central to Chinese culture, dating back to the philosopher Confucius (551-479 BC). Because this piece was written hundreds of years ago in another language, the sentence structure may be difficult to understand at first. Read the text carefully, paying attention to the punctuation and rereading lines when necessary. As you read, take notes on the author’s diction (word choice) and how it contributes to the tone of the text.

    Comments (-1)
  • One Woman’s War Efforts During World War II

    Lotte W. Goldschmidt Magnus (1920-2006) was a Jewish girl born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In her teens, Magnus was forced to emigrate to the United States when anti-Semitism1 began to rise in Germany. After high school, Magnus pursued a degree in dietetics and eventually enlisted in the army as a dietician. In this excerpt from her interview, Magnus reveals insight into the treatment of Jewish people in Nazi Germany and what it took to survive and succeed as a refugee in the United States. As you read, take notes on how gender influenced the responsibilities of Lotte Magnus and her family members during and leading up to World War II.

    Comments (-1)