• The Rush of Immigrants

    This informational text discusses the tide of new immigration, from the beginning of the Gilded Age of economic growth in the 1870s to the anti-immigration policies put in place during the 1920s. While immigrants of the early 1800s often came from Western Europe, the new immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe, as well as Asia. As you read, note what separated the new immigrants from American society and culture.

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  • A Holocaust Survivor, Spared from Gas Chamber by Twist of Fate

    During World War II, Germany’s Nazi Party forced hundreds of thousands of political opponents, Jews, and other so-called “racially undesirable elements” of German society into concentration camps. Throughout the war, it’s estimated that more than 10 million people died in these camps. This article reports on the experiences of Jack Mandelbaum, who survived the Auschwitz concentration camp. As you read, take notes on how Mandelbaum’s experiences have shaped his outlook on life and what can be learned from him.

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  • Icarus and Daedalus

    The following story retells the classic myth of Icarus and Daedalus, in which a skilled inventor creates wings for him and his son, Icarus, so they can escape King Minos of Crete. Overcome by his newly acquired freedom, Icarus flies too close to the sun, resulting in his tragic end. In Old Greek Folk Stories Told Anew, Peabody brings new life to this ancient story, as well as countless others. As you read, take notes on how Josephine Preston Peabody uses imagery and figurative language to describe flying

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  • Red Cloud's Speech after Wounded Knee By Chief Red Cloud

    1890 Red Cloud (or Maȟpíya Lúta) (1822-1909) was an important leader of the Oglala Lakota who led a successful campaign against the U.S. Army between 1866 and 1868. The conflict began over white encroachment into territory inhabited by Native American Plains tribes in the Wyoming and Montana territories, and it ended with the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, which established the Great Sioux Reservation. Red Cloud and his people settled on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, but he would go on to regret signing the treaty, stating: “They made us many promises, more than I can remember. But they kept but one—They promised to take our land...and they took it.” On December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, U.S. Calvary troops fired on a group of Lakota people, many of them women and children, and killed more than 150 and wounded 51, some of whom died later. As you read, take notes on Chief Red Cloud’s reaction to the Wounded Knee Massacre and how he traces back to the cause of this tragedy.

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  • The Inca: Engineering an Empire

    The Inca Empire was the largest empire in pre-Columbia1 America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century. The capital of the Inca Empire, Cuzco, was located where Peru is today. In this informational text, the author discusses the rise and fall of this great empire, as well as how the Incas were able to expand their reach. As you read, take note of how the Incas were able to expand their empire.

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